This study is to develop an assessment system for stream physical environments by considering stream characteristics. Comprehensively, the descriptions of and steam classification, assessing reach selection, contents of assessment categories and indexes are summarized. Since the physical structure of stream is results of reaction by stream power, streams were classified into three types (as high gradient stream, mid gradient stream and low gradient stream) according to the slope of channel, the grain size of bed material and the characteristics of channel topography. The scale of assessment reach was selected based on 10 or 25 times of channel width according to typical characteristics such as interval of step or riffle and sinuosity in each stream type. The assessment indexes were organized into common indicators such as channel stability, flow status, cross-section shape, bank stability, channel alteration and stream crossing structure, and characteristic indicators by stream type such as effective habitats, bed embeddedness, diversity of flow and frequency of step or riffle. To evaluate the applicability, the assessment system was applied to 9 streams and the results were analyzed and presented.